Lily's Column

RS232 vs TTL

RS232 vs TTL

What is RS232? When working with Serial Communication, you’ll bound to come across the term RS-232. What’s RS232 you may ask? RS232 is the first...

Heavy Copper PCB Design

Heavy Copper PCB Design

Heavy Copper PCB Overview A heavy copper PCB is a board that has a heavy copper circuit. This kind of PCB is subjected to specialized plating and e...

NRE and tooling costs – What you need to know for your PCB project

NRE and tooling costs – What you need to know for your PCB project

NRE stands for Non-Recurring Engineering, and it refers to the investment required for a new product project. The entire cost, right from the produ...

What is an Annular Ring?

What is an Annular Ring?

Annular rings are a vital part of any printed circuit board (PCB), but they pose quite a challenge for PCB designers. With such precise work, it’s ...

Lead Soldering vs. Lead-Free Soldering for PCBs

Lead Soldering vs. Lead-Free Soldering for PCBs

Solder is a metal alloy used as a type of “glue” used to fuse together with electrical components on PCBs. The solder is traditionally a mixture of...

IPC Class 2 VS Class 3

IPC Class 2 VS Class 3

What Do IPC Classes Mean? IPC separates PCBs in electronics manufacturing into three different classes. These classes signal the quality of the PCB...

Flying Probes & Testing

Flying Probes & Testing

A flying probe test is a type of ICT in which the probes advance seamlessly from one test point to the next without being part of an added physical...

How to Create a BOM (Bill of Materials)

How to Create a BOM (Bill of Materials)

What Is a BOM (Bill of Materials)? A bill of materials is a list of parts and items required to create the final physical product. It includes the ...

Why FR4 Material is Commonly used in PCB Fabrication?

Why FR4 Material is Commonly used in PCB Fabrication?

FR4 is the most common grade dielectric material that is used in the fabrication of circuit boards. This material is incorporated in single-sided, ...

8 Common Errors in Surface Mount Technology (SMT)

8 Common Errors in Surface Mount Technology (SMT)

Surface Mount Technology Troubleshooting #1 Solder-bridging or electrical bridging Solder bridging is solder across the two conductors that should ...

110 V to 310 V Converter Circuit

110 V to 310 V Converter Circuit

he discussed circuit is a solid state AC to DC voltage converter that will convert any AC input between 85 V and 250 V into a constant 310 V DC out...

How To Make PCB At Home

How To Make PCB At Home

Preparation Before Making PCB PCB Design PCB design is usually done by converting your circuit’s schematic diagram into a PCB layout using PCB l...